Personal details
Name: Marķa Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal
Born: April 5, 1947
San Juan, Philippines
Spouse:Jose Miguel Arroyo
Evangelina Lourdes
Parents:Diosdado Macapagal
Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal
Alma mater:Georgetown University
Assumption College
Ateneo de Manila University
University of the Philippines, Diliman
Philippine economy:  The focus of her presidency

Arroyo, who earned a master's degree and doctorate in economics, made the Philippine economy the focus of her presidency. Annual economic growth in the Philippines averaged 4.5% during the Arroyo administration, expanding every quarter of her presidency.[16] This is higher than in the administrations of her three immediate predecessors, Corazon Aquino (3.8%), Fidel Ramos (3.7%), and Joseph Estrada (3.7%).[17] The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007, with real GDP growth exceeding 7%.[18] The economy was one of the few to avoid contraction during the 2008 global financial crisis, faring better than its regional peers due to minimal exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from four-to five-million overseas Filipino workers, and a growing business process outsourcing industry.[16] Arroyo's handling of the economy has earned praise from former US President Bill Clinton, who cited her "tough decisions" that put the Philippine economy back in shape.[19] Despite this growth, the poverty rate remained stagnant due to a high population growth rate and uneven distribution of income.

Public perception

The Social Weather Stations public opinion group has conducted quarterly surveys tracking the net satisfaction rating ("satisfied" rating minus "dissatisfied" rating") of President Arroyo. She began her presidency in the first quarter of 2001 with a net satisfaction rating of +24. Her rating first dipped into the negative in the first quarter of 2003, making Arroyo the only president to achieve a negative net satisfaction rating in SWS opinion polling. Her rating rebounded well into the positive in 2004, in time for the presidential election where she won election to a new six-year term. However, net satisfaction sunk back into negative territory in the fourth quarter of 2004, and has remained negative since, dipping as low as -38 in the second quarter of 2008. Her net satisfaction rating in the first quarter of 2009 was -32.

2004 Presidential Election

Article VII Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution explicitly states that the president of the Philippines can only serve for one term. However, the same provision also implicitly states that a president's successor who has not served for more than four years can still seek a full term for the presidency. Although Arroyo falls under this category, she initially announced on December 30, 2002 that she will no longer seek the presidency. She emphasized that she will devote her remaining months in office to serving the people and improving the economy of the Philippines. In October 2003, Arroyo changed her mind and announced that she will run for the May 2004 presidential elections and seek a direct mandate from the people. She explained that, "there is a higher cause to change a way that nourishes our future".
14th President of the Philippines
Office: January 20, 2001 - June 30, 2010
Vice President: Teofisto Guingona
Noli de Castro
Preceded byJoseph Estrada
Succeeded byBenigno Aquino III
12th Vice President of the Philippines
Office: June 30, 1998 - January 20, 2001
President: Joseph Estrada
Preceded byJoseph Estrada
Succeeded byTeofisto Guingona
Secretary of National Defense
Office: November 30, 2006 - February 1, 2007
Preceded byAvelino Cruz
Succeeded byHermogenes Ebdane
Secretary of Social Welfare and Development
Office: June 30, 1998 - October 12, 2000
President: Joseph Estrada
Preceded byCorazon Alma de Leon
Succeeded byDulce Saguisag
Member of the House of Representatives from Pampanga's 2nd district
Office: June 30, 2010
Preceded byMikey Arroyo
Senator of the Philippines
Office: June 30, 1992 - June 30, 1998

First Term (2001-2004)

The last quarter of 2000 up to the first week of January 2001 was a period of political and economic uncertainty for the Philippines. On January 16, 2001, the impeachment trial has also taken a new direction. Private prosecutors walked out of the trial when pro-Estrada senators prevented the opening of an evidence (a brown envelope) containing bank records allegedly owned by President Estrada. With the walk out, the impeachment trial was not completed and the Filipinos eventually took to the street to continue the clamor for President Estrada's resignation. From January 17 to 20, 2001, hundreds of thousands of Filipinos gathered at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), the site of the original People Power Revolution. The clamor for a change in the presidency gained momentum as various sectors of Philippine society - professionals, students, artists, politicians, leftist and rightist groups - joined what became known as EDSA II. Officials of the administration, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), and the Philippine National Police (PNP) also withdrew their support for President Estrada.

Second Term (2004-2010)

On June 30, 2004, in a break with tradition, Arroyo first delivered her inaugural speech at the Quirino Grandstand in Manila. She then departed for Cebu City for her oath taking, the first time that a Philippine president took the oath of office outside of Luzon. Allegations of cheating against Arroyo gained momentum one year after the May 2004 elections. In a press conference held on June 10, 2005, Samuel Ong, former deputy director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) claimed to have audio recordings of wiretapped conversations between Arroyo and an official of the Commission on Elections (COMELEC). Virgilio Garcillano, a former COMELEC commissioner, would later be identified as the official talking to Arroyo. According to Ong, the recordings allegedly proved that Arroyo ordered the rigging of the national elections for her to win by around one million votes against Poe.